Levels of Autonomous Driving

Autonomous driving is the technology that allows your car to drive itself. Cars with this level of automation can be a great aid for drivers, but they can also take the wheel in dangerous situations.


On-road testing results and AV disengagements show that human operators must be ready to retake control of the vehicle when it becomes necessary.

Level 1

Level 1 is the most common form of autonomy out on the road today. It’s what you would expect from a feature like adaptive cruise control, which allows you to set a speed and maintain a safe distance between your vehicle and the car in front of you on select highways. Level 1 can include other techn 운전연수 ologies that help you navigate and center your vehicle in specific lanes as well, such as lane keeping systems or parking assistance.

At this point, the driver must be alert, monitoring their surroundings and ready to take over driving at any time – no napping in the driver’s seat yet. The next step, which is known as Level 2, introduces a more complex system that allows the vehicle to control multiple aspects of driving simultaneously and for extended periods of time, such as on long highway drives. For example, some Genesis, Hyundai and Kia vehicles offer Highway Driving Assist, which lets the driver keep their hands off of the steering wheel while the car navigates, steers, accelerates and brakes on select highways.

Level 3 is where things start to get interesting. It’s called conditional driving automation and uses advanced driver assistance systems and artificial intelligence to gauge traffic situations in the vehicle’s immediate environment and make decisions accordingly. At this point, the driver can leave their seat and do other activities, but they have to be ready to re-take control at any time.

Level 2 운전연수

At level 2, vehicles are able to perform multiple driving automation functions. This includes lane centering control, adaptive cruise control and other functions. In this case, the driver can safely take his or her hands off the wheel and feet off the pedals – but they are required to monitor their surroundings at all times and be prepared to step in at any time.

Tesla’s Autopilot is a good example of this technology. While the system allows drivers to keep their eyes off the road or engage in conversation, it will notify them of changing conditions and ask for permission before performing a maneuver. If the driver does not respond or fails to initiate a manual override within two seconds, the vehicle will automatically disengage.

This is the highest level of driver assistance currently available on passenger cars in the US. It uses a combination of sensor technologies and artificial intelligence to gauge traffic situations. In this mode, the car will only assume control of safety-critical functions and can only drive in specific environments (geofenced) or under certain circumstances.

Torc is focusing on developing autonomous driving systems for commercial vehicles that offer real-world benefits. These include fewer accidents, more productivity, improved cargo stability and more environmentally friendly delivery services. Moreover, the company believes that highly automated vehicles will allow trucks to remain on the road around the clock, providing significant cost savings and enhanced freight capacity.

Level 3

Level 4 is the point at which you can let go of the wheel and assume that your vehicle will safely get you to your destination. It’s the sort of thing that automakers are all aiming for, and banking billions on, but it will likely be decades before we reach this top-level of driverless automation.

This level is also known as conditional driving automation, and it allows you to hand over control to the car only under specific conditions. Those conditions are set by the car and include a requirement that a human driver is present, awake, ready to take over at all times, and can do so within two seconds of being prompted to intervene by the vehicle.

Mercedes was the first manufacturer to achieve SAE certification for Level 3 with its Drive Pilot ADAS system, and it will be the first to offer the capability in a production vehicle when its EQS and S-Class are rolled out later this year. Ford, meanwhile, is offering its own L3 technology in the shape of BlueCruise on its Blue Oval cars.

But while the technology for L3 is ready to hit the road, there are legal and safety issues that will hold back its deployment. That’s why some OEMs use the term “L2+” to show that their systems have surpassed L2, but do not claim L3 for legal reasons.

What is Autonomous Driving?

Autonomous driving refers to any vehicle that does not require a human driver to take control when it senses its environment. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) defines six levels of driving automation, from level 0 to level 5.

Automakers have begun rolling out features that can perform basic functions, such as lane centering and ACC. This is a key step toward autonomous vehicles, but the technology still requires the driver to monitor the vehicle and keep his or her hands on the wheel in case of an unexpected event.

A key challenge is overcoming the mistrust that many consumers have about autonomous vehicles. Reports of Tesla drivers falling asleep or otherwise distracted while on autopilot have heightened consumer concerns about the safety of self-driving cars. Several states have passed laws that require all vehicles to have a backup driver on hand in case the autonomous system fails or the car experiences mechanical problems.

Another key issue is ensuring that the AD system works in real-world conditions, including bad weather and obstacles. For example, autonomous cars must be able to see and interpret countless objects on the road, from leaves and litter to animals and people. Also, autonomous cars must be able to navigate through tunnels and bridges. Companies that specialize in developing HD maps that are accurate to a few centimeters will help ensure that autonomous vehicles can read road signs and understand their surroundings.